Jerusalem Surrenders – Bolsheviks Consolidate Control I THE GREAT WAR Week 177

Jerusalem Surrenders – Bolsheviks Consolidate Control I THE GREAT WAR Week 177

It’s a Holy City for three religions, and
really is one of the most important cities in our world history. As such, it is a big prize during this world
war, and this week, Jerusalem surrenders to the British. I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War. Last week the largest manmade explosion to
this point in history rocked Halifax, Nova Scotia, when a munitions ship and a relief
ship collided. The Allied Supreme War Council met for the
first time to discuss plans for 1918. The Battle of Cambrai came to an end on the
Western Front, the Austrians took thousands of Italian prisoners in Italy, and in the
Middle East the advancing British took Hebron. And what they were advancing toward was Jerusalem,
which they reached this week. In fact, Jerusalem surrendered the 9th. That morning, two British cooks saw a group
coming toward them with a white flag. It was the city’s dignitaries, the mayor,
priests, rabbis, imams, with the keys to the city. The Ottoman army had left, north to Nablus,
and east to Jericho and the river Jordan. British Commander Edmund Allenby did not enter
the city until the 11th, and he did so as specifically ordered by London, on foot and
with no allied flags flown over the city. With a guard of fewer than 150 troops, he
passed through the Mount Zion part of the city. At the base of the Tower of David his proclamation
was read, assuring the people that the sanctity of the Holy Places will be respected. It was in English, French, Arabic, Russian,
Hebrew, and Greek. The British offensive over on the western
front may have ended last week, but British minds were still very much focused there. Sir Auckland Geddes, Minister of National
Service, now warns the War Cabinet in London that with Russia pulling out of the war the
Germans will be able to transfer 900,000 men to the Western Front, giving them a superiority
there of 11 divisions. And when they move their artillery, they will
have an advantage over the Anglo-French forces of 2,000, with 4,000 in field guns and howitzers. The 12 American divisions coming into the
line in 1918 would reverse this and give the Allies a slight advantage, but Geddes was
adamant that a million new soldiers must come from Britain for any offensives to be successful. Men would have to come from the munitions
factories and shipyards, and be replaced by women or men who could not serve. And to make things a bit fairer for those
who went to war, the tax levied on those who made profits in business or industry as a
result of the war would be raised from 40 to 80 percent. Now, post revolutionary Russia had stopped
fighting in the war last week, and soon negotiations were going to begin for a peace treaty between
Russia and the Central Powers. Let’s talk about such a treaty for a minute. Obviously, the decision of the Bolsheviks
to pursue peace is a huge concern to the Allies. There were some people that thought this justified
intervention against the new Russian government, but the Allied governments didn’t really
share this view. The Bolshevik position on the war might be
diametrically opposed to theirs, but there were good reasons to engage the new regime
rather than simply oppose it. First off, the Allied nations had a bunch
of commercial links already during Tsarist Russia, and there were good economic reasons
for not taking action that might provoke retaliation against those interests. There were also large numbers of Allied citizens
in Russia whose safety may be at risk if the Allies openly opposed the Bolsheviks. Of course, the opposition- the White Russians-
had already begun to coalesce by now, and they and the sheer size of Russia meant that
the Bolsheviks were not and would not be any time soon in control of the whole country. To some Allied politicians it made sense to
try to not alienate the Bolsheviks, on the chance that the Eastern Front might again
become active, while at the same time giving aid to their opposition within Russia. There was also the Czech Legion, who were
now trapped in Russia but wanted to continue the war. Intervention could certainly help them to
leave so they could eventually be deployed on the Western Front. And the Allies were sympathetic toward the
Baltic States and the Poles, who all wanted independence, but would have to overcome the
fact that much of their possible homelands were under Russian control, so how do you
intervene to help that work out? The situation was far from cut and dried. But the Soviet government by this week controlled
28 provincial capitals as well as all the industrial centers. They introduced the 8-hour day for railway
workers and created the Commissariat of Public Education, which ended the monopoly on such
education formerly held by the Russian Orthodox Church. Also, now on the 11th, they banned the Constitutional
Democratic Party- the Cadet Party- and ordered its leaders arrested as enemies of the people. They also postponed the meeting of the Constituent
Assembly until January, citing technical difficulties. Elections had been held near the end of November
for the assembly, and more than 60% of the people with the right to vote had voted, but
sorting the results out was a tricky thing. The size of the country, the world war, the
beginnings of a civil war, a failing communications system, these all made it really hard to figure
out. Still, by this time, it was becoming clear
that the Bolsheviks were not only not going to have a majority, they weren’t going to
be close to the largest party. As it would turn out, they got between 20
and 25% of the vote, and the Socialist Revolutionaries got around 40. The Bolsheviks were big winners in the cities
and among the soldiers in the west, but the peasantry made up 80% of the Russian population
and did not go their way. This did not sit well with Lenin and company. Two weeks from now, Lenin’s “Thesis on
the Constituent Assembly” will be anonymously published in Pravda, and states that the Soviet
republic is a higher form of democracy than the usual bourgeois republic with its constituent
assembly. Lenin argues that “the interests of this
revolution stand higher than the formal rights of the constituent assembly”, and “attempt(s)
to consider the question of the constituent assembly… within the framework of ordinary
bourgeois democracy… would be a betrayal of the proletariat’s cause and the adoption
of the bourgeois standpoint.” So the elections did not really represent
the will of the workers, according to him. In a way, he does have a point. The Socialist Revolutionaries were by now
split into anti-Bolshevik right and pro-Bolshevik left, and the election results had not reflected
that split but had just counted their votes in total. The rights were in a big majority, but still,
if, say, a quarter of their votes were actually for the pro-Bolshevik left then the Bolsheviks
would maybe have won a majority. He proposed new elections and for the Soviet
government to run things until then. Many people saw this as a prelude to suppressing
the assembly. I guess we’ll just have to wait and find
out what happens in January. As a footnote here – ONE source, the Chronology
of the Great War, which is a fairly reliable source, but still only one, says that on December
11th the assembly did meet in Petrograd, but was dispersed the 13th by Bolsheviks troops. I’m inclined to disbelieve this, since that
would have been a huge deal and big enough for other sources to write about, but I thought
I’d mention it. That section of the Chronology was originally
published back in 1919, in case you wondered. Anyhow, war in general was not over for the
Bolsheviks. In fact, they declared war on the Cossacks
in the south on the 9th. The 12th saw fighting between Cossacks and
Bolsheviks on the River Don at Rostov, and the 14th, the Bolsheviks occupied Rostov. Also this week, they defeated General Lavr
Kornilov twice north of Kharkov. And the week ends with two more notes; Romania
signed an armistice the 12th, and that same day, Joseph Caillaux, former French Prime
Minister, was arrested for treason. He favored a negotiated peace with Germany. Jerusalem surrendered to the allies, Russia
may soon have official peace from the world war, but now there is no peace between the
Bolsheviks and the Cossacks. Well, let’s be honest, there was no peace
anywhere. Taking Jerusalem provoked the ringing of bells
in Rome, but it wasn’t peace. There were millions of men fighting on the
western front alone, and the British war Cabinet says it will need at least a million more
to fight an offensive that maybe would bring peace. Lenin wants peace from the world war because
he’s already fighting internal wars and they’re obviously going to only get worse. Looking at it all, it really seemed that even
if by some miracle the world war did end, war wasn’t going to. The fighting would go on and on everywhere. That’s what the future of the modern world
looked like 100 years ago this week. If you want to learn more about Russia before
the revolutions of 1917, you can click right here for our special episode. Our Patreon supporter of the week is ChooChoo
– I am grateful that you cho-cho-chose to make this project what it is today. Don’t forget to subscribe.

100 Replies to “Jerusalem Surrenders – Bolsheviks Consolidate Control I THE GREAT WAR Week 177

  1. also the fact that the mayor gave the keys of the city to a cook and a sergeant
    Was because they went out looking for food. They both lost their way and met by chance the party with the mayor.
    The keys of the city were given to the cook and he said:"i don't no keys to no holy city, all i want is eggs for my captain".

    Also the British were seen by jews of the old city as soldiers of the messiah in a way because of many reasons mainly because of the British showed a spirit of a safer Palestine that can also be a home for jews. And also because of the hundreds of years old rule of the ottomans simply ended

    For the soldiers tho they only asked for matches from that people of Jerusalem since they had none.

  2. For those who don't already know, the cook to whom Jerusalem was surrendered, was in fact, stumbling about in the fog following the sound of a rooster crowing, looking for eggs to use for breakfast for his officers. The rest of the true but funny tale can be found here:

  3. I find it funny that Lenin preached that his Marxist ways would be the best for the Common Man, the peasant yet 80% of them voted better than that LOL somehow they knew better than that and boy were they right. how many millions of Russians and other ethnicities died because of the Soviet Union? The number truly is insane. how I was thinking about it the other day if you took that number Plus the tens of millions that died because of World War 1 + 2 Russia and other Soviet Satellites populations would be dramatically bigger at this point in history. and might be a realistic argument that we could be almost at 8 billion in population right now and over 8 million if communism never existed and you didn't have all those deaths from the Soviet Union China Cambodia Vietnam and the others. Think about all the Soviets that died in the 30s during the famine that's long enough now that they would have been great grandparents maybe even great-great-grandparents in this situation. Plus think of all the kids that were never conceived because of that. and it would definitely be over 8 billion if World War 1 & 2 never happened that's what another hundred million just from War casualties and tens of Millions because of the smallpox epidemic that happened after World War 1.

  4. I was wondering, I was reading this book about ww1 and it said something about these Germans would put their gun on their thigh and shoot into the air and it would arch into the enemies trenches, if you could talk about these on out of the trenches that would be great!

  5. Brits have this in their pocket. They’ll probably reach Antioch by Christmas and Konstantinyye will surely fall during spring.

  6. Man, isn't it so convenient that the proper type of democracy is the one that means you stay in power despite losing, huh Lenin? Funny how that worked out, huh?

  7. People do not conquer Jerusalem.. They burdened themselves with it.. The fruit of their victory is a curse::

    Zechariah 12: " {2} Behold, I will make Jerusalem a cup of trembling unto all the people round about, when they shall be in the siege both against Judah and against Jerusalem. {3} ¶ And in that day will I make Jerusalem a burdensome stone for all people: all that burden themselves with it shall be cut in pieces, though all the people of the earth be gathered together against it."

  8. Great video as always. This is probably something brought up before in other comment sections, but can anyone recommend a channel of this caliber for WWII?

  9. very nice vid not reflexively anti communist as so many us vids are (btw i m not a communist just dont like the shrill attitude towars the concept)

  10. How about a special about the British Territorial Force? Explaining the first, second and third line of a Territorial battalion. Their overseas and home service, plus the way they were looked at as second rate soldiers by the army staff.

  11. With the British on the move in Palestine, Now would be a good time to do a special on the Aust Light horse. ( the ones with Kangaroo feathers in their hats ) PS great show

  12. hey indie i have questions is the seebatlion same or related to the german jagers because i see google images between the german marines and the alpenjager but the look just the same because there wore green uniforms and shakos which look just the same i like to know please

  13. The 10th Australian Light Horse entered Jerusalem at 7pm on the 9th and the city was surrendered by the mayor at that time. The Official surrender happened on the 11th.

  14. A revolution without the support of the peasantry? Marx was prolly turning in his grave over that one. As if usurping an ideology dependent on the support of the 'proletariat' without actually having the support of the peasantry could EVER go down an undemocratic path. "No no, we know what's best for them." Sounds an awful lot like Enlightenment Monarchism to me.

  15. Really like this channel. In the Netherlands our education about WW1 is very limited. So many things I hear here a totally new to me. Ps found this video that really hits home the
    human drama

  16. little sidenote on this subject. The situation in Russia was so chaotic that even Lenin was robbed of his pistol in the assembly and later pulled over by soldiers and robed of his money and car later on

  17. Say what you will, but the Ottomans realised how important Jerusalem is too many people. Instead of turning it into a slaughterhouse and damaging historical buildings, they withdrew.

    The current inhabitants of that region could learn a thing or two from that attitude….

  18. With Jerusalem being officially put as the capital of Israel this week and this episode. Does this mean that in the past hundred years Jerusalem underwent two major changes on the same week. Coincidence?

  19. Im getting more and more curious now that how the allies really won the war cuz it seems like the combat virgin American troops are not enough to compenstae for the experienced german and austro-hungarian forces coming from the east. I will (cant!) wait to learn the answer by this channel on November 2018.

  20. So It might be a new chans to get home by chrismas 1918 then. Didn´t the generals say it should be a short war when it started.

  21. British Historians tend to view the "Battle of Amiens" as the 100 days offensive to victory. Wouldn't it be more accurate to say that the "Second battle of the Marne" as the TRUE battle that altered the course of events for the allies? Shouldn't it be considered as the 119 days to victory? 20 thousand Germans soldiers surrendered to the allies during the "Battle of Amiens" compared to the "Second Battle of the Marne" for which 20 infantry divisions surrendered to the combined forces of France, US, Italy, and Britian. After this battle, Crown Prince Wilhelm had to tell the Kaiser that the 20 divisions of infantry are no longer in the order of battle. Secondly, before the "Second Battle of the Marne" the Crown Prince was already aware that this was the last attack his armies were even capable of making. Also for the Americans, it was this battle, the "Second Battle of the Marne" that allowed Pershing to get his portion of the Western Front which it had been agreed upon by Ferdinand Foch. Thirdly, the "Battle of Amiens" cannot happen until Ferdinand Foch wins at the "Second Battle of the Marne". Can you please help kill the myth of the 100 days offensive and replace it with 119 days to victory?

  22. I'd be interested in a source for the part about Geddes saying Britain needed 1m more men. I thought I knew a bit about Geddes, but did not know he was involved in conscription and recruitment policy. I find his politics a bit distasteful, and he was definitely a supporter of the 'we must attack, however many men die; Haig must be supported whatever he does' camp, but he had been a very effective and rational manager of various forms of production and I'm surprised he would come up with such a figure.

     The British Army peaked at 4m men and was close to that figure at the time of this video. A total of about 5.7m British men served during the whole war , and 0.7m died (OK, less than that at the time of the video, but Passchendaele had nicely boosted the total). I don't know how many of the injured were unavailable for returning to the trenches, but I imagine at least another 0.7m. In other words, pretty much everybody that had volunteered or been conscripted at this point was either in the army, dead, or too badly injured to go back. All this excludes the empire. The idea that a further 1m could somehow be taken from Britain is ludicrous – I doubt if there were sufficient fit men of a suitable age, never mind the crippling of mining, steel, munitions production and railways that would have ensued (which Geddes knew more about than almost anybody), and whilst I can believe Haig, Northcliffe and Bonar-Law would be quite happy to promote such insanity, it doesn't sound like Geddes – but there you are, if he said it, he said it.

  23. Thank you. I'll wait until I see how you talk about events in January before I shower you in praise again, but this was certainly a marked improvement over the videos of the past few months. I don't expect you to support Lenin, obviously, but I do greatly appreciate it when you try to be accurate and fair. For much of this year, it has felt like you've been getting a little too "into" the history at the expense of the people who lived it, if you take my meaning. Cheering some advances, talking about military strategy, etc, and losing sight a bit of the horrors of the war as it played out. Say what you will about Lenin, but the goal was to end war, actually end it, and whether you or the viewer "supports" him or not, I just don't want viewers to come away from the show thinking the war "wasn't that bad" and that leftists were evil for "sabotaging the war effort" by trying to break the free of what they saw as the causes of this great tragedy called war. As long as viewers aren't coming away thinking the war was "cool," then I guess you've done your job pretty well.

  24. My grandparents left Hungary after the war because of the continued fighting and revolution. My grandfather or Nagyapa from what I know, fought on the Italian front.

  25. So it seems that Remainers got their lesson in opposing and denying the Brexit vote from the Leninist Communists here. "The plebs don't know how to vote for their interests *ahem us*… so let's just ignore everything and do it again shall we?"

  26. I wish jerusalem would vanish, its existence, with its "religious" significance, seriously divides humanity and serves the system of control

  27. Fighting on Don. I recommend "And quietly flows the Don", a true masterpiece that is set in this time period. I read it 7-8 years ago and remember it as the best novel I ever read.

  28. Poor russians… the first world war caused an unimaginable amount of suffering to them already – and it's going to get so much worse 🙁

  29. Eh… Seems like like some "darker" facts about Lenin are not being told. I hope I'm wrong. The Germans help Lenin with his cue. Heavily, according to the historian Richard Pipes, relying on the numbers from Eduard Bernstein himself, Germany paid more than 50 million Deutsche marks in gold" from 1917 to 1918 to help the Bolsheviks establish and hold power.
    So, Revolution? Lenin was a war criminal who tore civil rights and killed many civilians, including the royal family (3 children among them), hanged many Kulaks and opened the way for the biggest disgrace of the XX century, which is still killing people till these days: Communism.
    I really like the channel, but I hope that it remains impartial.

  30. The fact that the Bolsheviks had majorities in the cities but were lacking in support in the countryside falls of course completely in line with marxist political thinking. After all, it is the working class that is to be expected to carry out the revolution, while the peasantry is usually to underdeveloped politically to carry out such a task.

    The Bolsheviks were well aware of this fact, and it should not be forgotten that their original intent was not to only make the worker's revolution a reality in Russia, but it was the expectation that once the spark of revolution was lit in Russia, this revolutionary fire would spread to the rest of Europe, particularly Germany, where the working class constituted a much larger percent of the population.

    But when the revolution remained isolated in Russia, the bolsheviks and the Russian urban workers were in deep trouble. With support from the countryside, the counter-revolution rapidly took shape, forcing the Bolsheviks to take ever more drastic measures to protect the revolution. However, in my opinion, these measures increasingly started chipping away worker's democracy and control.

    The transofrmation of the Red Guards from a voluntary and democratic military force lead by workers into the Red Army that was increasingly lead by old tsarist officers, the prohibition of other parties, and most of all the prohibition of factions within the Bolshevik party were, even though they were meant to be temporary and could be justified from a military perspective in the civil war, big mistakes politically. All these measures, coupled with the barbarity of the civil war, lead to the asphyxiation of the revolution, and set up the conditions for the rise of the Stalinist bureaucracy that effectively liquidated the worldwide communist movement. Even though Trotsky himself was himself responsible for many of the mistakes that were made during the civil war, he did state that "socialism needs democracy like the human body needs oxygen".

  31. I finally did it : I catched you guys up! I have been watching 4 to 6 episodes per day since three months and here it is!

  32. As far as Lenin's revolution is concerned… I have a rather neutral stance on it as a TITOIST. While Lenin did help Communism grow and develop as an ideology and managed to spread it accross the globe and is probably one of the main reasons why Communism is still such a strong and relevant force to this day…. I can't agree with his idea of global Communism where everything is run by the workers, that's nonsense and even HE knew it. The Workers need a leader or a collective group of leaders, a strong, fierce, competent, intelligent and courageous one. Regions, Provinces, States and Nations must govern themselves and make their own decisions! Not be forced to follow a strict pattern set up by the biggest one of them all!

    If there is ever to be a Communist world, it needs to be a Titoist one for it to work! You can quote me on that!

  33. Checked the fact for you, Indy. It is correct, bolos and left SRs DID suppress the first preliminary attempt of the members of RCA to actually get together and start working at 28th of November (JC), which is 11th  of December (GC) of 1917. The source is the Doctoral (for the Doctor of University, not just a PhD) Dissertation of the historian A. Sokolov from Saint-Petersburg: Соколов А. В. Государство и Православная церковь в России, февраль 1917 — январь 1918 гг. Диссертация на соискание ученой степени доктора исторических наук. — СПб, 2014. — С. 526.

  34. bourgeouis democracy? now that chaos ruins all of the third world country, weakened them, and let capitalist bankers suck them up, slowly..

  35. Especially interesting if read against TE Lawrence's "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom" – describes perfectly how the British threw away the advantage

  36. This recap sentence made me stood for a long time, watching through my monitor…. How happy we are to live in a realatively peaceful times!? And how politicians on the international stage exists, which are willing to shake this boat for their own or rich classes gain….. Look at how both WW's began! You do not need much. And blood will be on every doorstep in Europe. Again. I truly believe that the existance of Weapons of mass distruction has held us away from WW3…. We people are interresting creatures, which will extinct ourselfs sooner or later. Tomorrow morning stand up, have your coffee, pet your dog, love your family and be thankful that you live in peace.

  37. If someone gave me Lenin to do with what i wanted with for 5 minutes, they would find him with his head turned into a red sauce.

    Ostalgie: The Berlin Wall check it out

  39. One of the takeaways for Lenin from the election results should have been that Russia clearly wasn't ready for a proletarian revolution. The vast majority of Russia's population were peasants, and the party that represented the peasants, the SRs, won a plurality in the election. However, acknowledging the results of the election would have meant Lenin a. admitting that he had been wrong about Russia's historical development and b. ceding power. He was unwilling to do either of those things.

  40. I have subscribed mainly because your videos are not Russophobic as most historical channels today are. keep up with the unbiased work.

  41. All the ills of the 20th century started with the first World War and still the effects of it are being felt today as consequences of it.

  42. The Russian Orthodox were wiped out by the bolshies, who 'gifted' the world with communism, the religion of the antichrist.

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